Center for Reliable Energy Systems

Girth Welding and ECA

  • Guidance document for the proper use of API Standard 1104
    1. Provide background and rationale for various clauses in API 1104
    2. Provide example problems
  • Supplemental requirements for welding procedure qualifications and field practice to produce strain-resistant girth welds
    1. Selection of welding procedures, consumables, and welding parameters
    2. Additional procedure qualification tests and requirements
    3. Repair procedures and limits
    4. Inspection procedures and flaw acceptance criteria
    5. Achievable strain tolerance level
  • Welding procedures to improve the strain capacity of girth welds
    1. Design and implementation of special welding procedures to compensate for the detrimental effects of weld strength undermatching, high-low misalignment, and weld flaws
  • Proper treatment of low fracture toughness
    1. Understanding the significance of low toughness related to pop-in
    2. Provide recommended procedures to deal with low toughness
  • Construction quality management for welds with high-low misalignment
    1. Guidelines and limits on high-low misalignment under different conditions
    2. Interaction of high-low misalignment with other features, such as welds with undermatching strength
  • Welding and integrity assessment of high-strength pipelines (≥X70)
    1. Essential variables for welding high strength pipelines
    2. Test protocols to obtain accurate mechanical properties
    3. Assessment methodology for traditional and advanced designs
  • Welding procedure design and weld property prediction of X80 and lower grades
    1. Optimization of welding procedures through the prediction of weld and HAZ properties
  • ECA and flaw acceptance criteria for the construction of large-diameter pipelines
    1. Flaw acceptance criteria per API 1104, CSA Z662, or other equivalent codes
  • ECA and flaw acceptance criteria for low temperature construction
    1. Flaw acceptance criteria using advanced analysis, i.e., crack-driving force vs. low-constraint toughness
  • ECA to account for high-low misalignment
    1. Flaw acceptance criteria explicitly accounting for the high degree of misalignment
  • ECA of offshore risers and flowlines
    1. Flaw acceptance criteria that explicitly account for fatigue and/or harsh environment
  • ECA of liquid lines with fatigue concerns
    1. Review the application of API 1104 Appendix A Level 3 procedure
    2. Make recommendation on implementation
  • Development and standardization of state-of-art fitness-for-service assessment procedures
    1. Support standard revisions in test protocols and assessment procedures

Case Study – Essential Welding Variable Method (EWVM)

Representative Publications